This question should never get you into trouble. If you suspect that asking this question might be a bit too forward, you could also opt for something a bit less confrontational. Ask what the next steps are as a conversation starter and then follow up with this question in case the issue of references is not addressed.
Get to the next Step: Asking this question will attempt to get to the next step of the process. If this is the first interview, you want to get a call back to talk to the next round of interviewers.
Show Interest: This interview questions indicates to the interviewer that you are interested in getting to the next step. You do not need to go back home and sleep on it, you know that this is what you want and this type of passion is often exactly what scores you a few extra bonus points.
Evaluate Their Interest: Another interesting way to use this question is to try and find out if you believe there is an interest in your profile. Should it be that you are the best candidate, they will definitely be interested in seeing your references, right?
Showcase Great References: Perhaps you have worked for someone that is very well known within your field? Perhaps your reference is someone that they know or has worked in this organization before? If you believe your references are truly amazing and you are interested in this opportunity, you might want to put the references into play earlier in the process than normally.
Assuming Disinterest: Just because they are not interested in getting your references at this point, this does not necessarily mean they are not interested in your profile. The recruiter could simply be unaware of who the hiring manager considers to be the best candidate. Reality is also that sometimes you may not be the best candidate at this given moment, but that could change as the process moves forward.
All Questions to Move the Process Forward during the job interview
All HR & Recruiter Questions to ask at an Interview